The availability of fresh water will be the most pressing problem in Bangladesh over the coming decades. Industrial effluents, municipal wastewater, runoffs from agricultural farms with heavy agro chemical are principal factors affecting the surface and marine water quality in Bangladesh. Several hot spots of inland water pollution have been identified around major cities across the country. Higher concentration of arsenic in groundwater is limiting its use in irrigation. Significantly low dry season flow in rivers is accelerating salt water intrusion in the estuaries and river systems. Effective management of available water resources emphasizes strengthening institutional capacity of associated organizations.