The purpose of this study was to explore implementation strategies for fostering people’s participation in solid waste management in Myanmar. To achieve this, an action research employing mixed methods was conducted in Bagan City, within the twenty months period. Household attitudes and behavior was collected through questionnaire surveys. In-depth interview, group discussion, organizational and community meetings and observation were conducted to address problem situations, explore strategies to fix the problems and assess the outcomes. The results of the study showed that the current participatory approach, which mainly focuses on raising awareness or imparting environmental education, is not adequate to maximize the people’s participation in Myanmar due to the persistence of institutional and social constraints. This study discovered that promoting people’s participation in its ultimate form is more effective when (1) the municipality develops the knowledge and skills to fulfill the new role of service partner; (2) the people understand (rather than merely being aware of the problems) the harmful effects of their behavior and realize their roles and responsibilities; (3) the people are empowered with knowledge and skill and (4) motivation and interaction exist among all parties.
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